|Financování péče o travní porosty v Krkonošském národním parku|
|Economy of grassland management in the Krkonoše Mts National Park|
Horské druhově bohaté louky prošly v průběhu posledního století dramatickou proměnou. Původní
hospodářský význam ztratily ve prospěch rozvoje turistického ruchu a nyní je hlavním motivem péče zachování
jejich přírodní hodnoty. Z hlediska současného způsobu hospodaření a změn v životním stylu nejsou nadále příliš
vhodné pro konkurenceschopnou produkci. Nastává společenské dilema, jak zajistit udržitelný způsob péče, když
jsou i komerční chovy hospodářských zvířat na travních porostech bez podpor ve výrazné ekonomické ztrátě (jak
masný skot, tak ovce). Současně je zřejmé, že dostupnost veřejných zdrojů fi nančních prostředků podléhá výkyvům
(např. v závislosti na politice měnících se vlád nebo na vývoji národní ekonomiky). Takto jsou potenciálně stále
ohroženy nejcennější plochy travních porostů zejména nedostatkem péče a v menší míře zvyšováním intenzity hospodaření.
Tento příspěvek tedy diskutuje možnosti finančního zajištění hospodaření na druhově bohatých travních
porostech v Krkonošském národním parku s ohledem na výše uvedená východiska.
Species-rich mountain meadows have undergone a dramatic change in the last century. They lost their
original agricultural importance to tourism development, and now the principal management motivation is to maintain
their natural value. Due to the current management methods and changes in lifestyle, they are no longer exactly
suitable for competitive production. A social dilemma has arisen concerning how to ensure sustainable management
when even the commercial breeding of farm animals on grassland is a signifi cantly loss-making operation without
subsidies (both meat cattle and sheep). At the same time, it is obvious that the availability of public funding sources
is subject to fluctuations (e.g., dependence on the policies of changing governments or national economic trends).
Thus, the most valuable areas of grassland vegetation are potentially constantly at risk, primarily due to a lack of
management and, to a lesser extent, increased farming intensity. This paper therefore discusses options for assuring
funding for management of species-rich grassland stands in the Krkonoše Mts National Park (the Krkonoše
Mts / the Giant Mts) with respect to the issues mentioned above.
|Montane species-rich meadows in the Krkonoše Mts National Park (NP) went through dramatic change during the last century. They lost the role as a source of income for farmers and instead tourism prevailed as the major interest in the region. In addition, land ownership went through quite turbulent times during this period. Now the main interest is to save the natural value of the grasslands in the NP. But the meadows are in many cases quite remote from the farm/ inhabitant centres and access is sometime quite difficult. In addition, the productivity of the meadows/ pastures and the nutritious quality of the grass are quite low (e.g. between 1 to 2,4 tonnes of dry matter per hectare). The national average income from beef cattle grazing on grasslands is actually a quite high loss (about −592 EUR/LU, in the case of beef cattle, Tab. 2). Therefore, an animal density of 0,3 LU/ ha results in a loss per hectare of 196 EUR. The natural conditions in the NP are much worse than the national average, thus the losses are probably even higher there. Therefore montane meadows are not suitable for competitive production, which leads to a social dilemma: how to secure sustainable management, when even commercial production on grasslands results in a signifi cant loss (both beef and lamb). In addition, it is obvious that public support is not sustainable over the long-term and is usually unstable (e.g. it is dependent on election results or the performance of the national economy).Thus, the most valuable grasslands are endangered by a lack of management or intensification. Based on the assumptions mentioned above, the aim of this chapter is to discuss several possibilities how to ensure sustainable species-rich grasslands management. Current grassland management relies heavily on public money support from national funds (Programme of landscape management) and European funds – Direct payments and the Rural Development Program (agri-environmental measures, support of organic farming, and payment in areas with natural handicaps, Tab. 6, 7). The support stemming from Direct Payments and the Rural Development Program have so far been sufficient for ensuring grassland management, but beef and lamb production operate at a loss. The chapter concludes with a presentation of potential ways how to increase the likelihood of sustainable|
management of meadows, including: (i) integrating different sources of public support from national and EU funds. The complementarity of these two types of measures could be increased by careful design of both national and EU policy measures and corresponding payment levels. (ii) changing the concept of payment calculation of grasslands management under agri-environmental measures in the NP in order to reflect the local situation. Because the grasslands in the area are primarily not managed for production purposes, and without support there will be nearly no farming on
species-rich meadows, the concept of payment for income foregone is not suitable. It would be more appropriate to support the farmers for the full costs of managing the meadows. (iii) finding alternative sources of support of grassland management in order to decrease the danger of a lack of public funds in the future . One possibility is to start a collective action of stakeholders in the area, in order to share the benefits and costs of landscape beauty and biodiversity. If this action is successful, there will be more secure funds, which are less dependent on the government. Such funds could still be used in combination with public funds. But because of the capacity of the community to start collective action is currently low, the process should be well prepared and should be long-term.