|Managementový monitoring stanovišť ve Walesu a jeho založení na loukách v Krkonoších|
|Management monitoring of habitats in Wales and its implementation in montane meadows in the Krkonoše Mts|
|Clive Hurford; Stanislav Březina|
V předložené studii představujeme inovativní koncept managementového monitoringu původně vyvinutého
ve Walesu a poté upraveného pracovníky Správy Krkonošského národního parku pro účely monitoringu
horských luk. Nejprve uvádíme jeho hlavní zásady a poté popisujeme realizaci na horských loukách v Krkonoších.
Managementovým monitoringem zde míníme sledování a zároveň hodnocení stavu vzhledem k jednoznačně stanoveným
cílům ochranářské péče. Ústřední část studie popisuje tvorbu měřitelných indikátorů stavu stanoviště, které
umožňují jednoznačně určit, zda dochází k naplňování cílů péče či nikoliv.
In this study we introduce an innovative concept of management monitoring originally developed in Wales
and then adapted with conservationists in the Krkonoše Mts National Park for purpose of monitoring of montane
meadows.. Initially we list the main principles of management monitoring and then we describe its implementation
in the montane meadows in the Krkonoše Mts (the Giant Mts). We consider management monitoring as intermittent
(regular or irregular) surveillance carried out in order to ascertain the extent of compliance with clearly defi ned
conservation management goals. The core part of the study describes the development of measurable indicators of
habitat condition to link with the desired state as presented in the conservation objectives in the management plan.
|In the approach presented here, management monitoring is not only surveillance of the current state of the protected feature, it also assumes comparing it with the desired pre-defined target status. To make this comparison, we must be able to defi ne the state of the habitat using objectively verifi able and measurable indicators. In the article we demonstrate that an ideal indicator of the change in the condition of a habitat can be a change in area of its most scientifically valuable and best-preserved fragments. This change in area will be represented by a change in the number of sampling points in optimum condition on the transects, which run between preserved and degraded vegetation. This whole methodological approach is based on the repeatedly confi rmed assumption that degradation of the vegetation is most often manifested by the spread of aggressive and invasive plants into the still-preserved species-rich vegetation, and that species-rich vegetation can be restored with the managed retreat of the competitive and invasive species. An increase in the number of plots with well-preserved vegetation indicates appropriate management, while the opposite trend indicates a need to review it. A key part of developing this monitoring is identifying the condition indicator assemblage to defi ne an important habitat type. This can be achieved by a simple procedure based on the search for a combination of plant species which clearly distinguishes well-preserved vegetation from its more degraded surroundings. The definition of well-preserved vegetation typically combines the coexistence of at least some listed positive species with the absence of listed negative indicators. Because the vegetation of the most valuable habitat fragments may differ between the localities, the condition indicators are specifi c for each monitored site.|
The article ends with a description of how the monitoring transects are established in the Krkonoše Mts meadow enclaves and summarises our current experience of this type of monitoring. We appreciate the greater objectivity and representativeness of the data obtained e.g., in comparison with the classic phytocenological surveying, as well as the speed of the data collection. An undeniable advantage of this type of monitoring is the possibility to link the vegetation monitoring with the establishment of management targets. Finally, it should be recognized that the described methodical approach was not developed to establish cause and effect, it was developed solely to provide an early warning of condition change. Additional information will be needed to establish factors responsible for vegetation change, e.g. overgrazing, undergrazing, inappropriate management, atmospheric depositions, drainage etc.